Morphological and molecular analyses of Coolia malayensis (Dinophyceae) and effects of extracts of the macroalga Dictyota dichotoma (Phaeophyceae) on its growth

Morphological and molecular analyses of Coolia malayensis (Dinophyceae) and effects of extracts of the macroalga Dictyota dichotoma (Phaeophyceae) on its growth


  • Ana Emilia Ramos Santiago



epibenthic dinoflagellates, growth curves, molecular taxonomy


Coolia is a genus that at present includes eight species of epibenthic dinoflagellates of interest due
to the toxins produced (e.g., cooliatoxin) by species of the genus and their associations with other toxic epibenthic
dinoflagellates genera (Ostreopsis, Amphidinium, Prorocentrum and Gambierdiscus). There is limited information
on the diversity and ecology of this genus along the coasts of Mexico. The objectives of this study were to identify
by the use of integrative taxonomy (morphological and molecular) two isolates of Coolia (CMBAPAZ-1 and s/i 72)
from Bahía de la Paz, Gulf of California and to determine the effects of the extracts from the macroalga Dictyota dichotoma on their growth. Both isolates were cultured in GSe medium with and without macroalgal extracts: 1) GSe
medium, 2) GSe with the addition of the crude extract of D. dichotoma, 3) GSe with the addition of the carbohydrate
fraction of D. dichotoma, and 4) GSe with the addition of the non-precipitable fraction of D. dichotoma. Morphological and molecular analyses of the 28S region of rDNA (bootstrap values > 95%) confirmed the identification
of the isolates as Coolia malayensis. There were no significant differences (p < 0.05) in the cell abundances of two
strains in GSe medium compared with the other treatments. The maximum abundances found in strains CMBAPAZ-1 and s/i 72 at 28 days of culture were 40,271 ± 3,018 and 43,428 ± 4,560 cells mL-1, respectively. The growth
rate ranged from 0.129 to 0.139 div day-1 in both strains. The extract and fractions of D. dichotoma neither favored
nor inhibited the growth of C. malayensis; therefore, the possibility that the macroalga may favor the growth of this
dinoflagellate in its natural environment is not excluded


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How to Cite

Ramos Santiago, A. E. (2023). Morphological and molecular analyses of Coolia malayensis (Dinophyceae) and effects of extracts of the macroalga Dictyota dichotoma (Phaeophyceae) on its growth: Morphological and molecular analyses of Coolia malayensis (Dinophyceae) and effects of extracts of the macroalga Dictyota dichotoma (Phaeophyceae) on its growth. CICIMAR Oceánides, 37(2), 1–20.